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Wine/Beverage/Beer-Making Fining Agent
Chitosan is an old and trusted fining agent derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in fungi(aspergllius niger). When added to wine or beer, a mild electrostatic attraction binds yeast and other particulates to the Chitosan. This accelerates the sedimentation process (flocculation), clarifying the beverage more quickly and effectively.
Chitosan is often used in conjunction with other fining agents, especially colloidal silica products such as Kieselsol. In combination with Kieselsol, bentonite clays, gelatin, silica gel, isinglass, and other fining agents, it is used to clarify wine, mead, and beer. Added late in the brewing process, chitosan improves flocculation, and removes yeast cells, fruit particles, and other detritus that cause hazy wine. Chitosan combined with colloidal silica is becoming a popular fining agent for white wines, because chitosan does not require acidic tannins (found primarily in red wines) with which to flocculate.
Fat Binder for Weight-loss Management
Fungal/Vegetal chitosan is a type of revolutionary fiber for body mass management by reducing fat absorption and inducing satiety sensation.
This fiber, extracted from a type of fungus( mushroom/aspergillus niger ), has the ability to bind fat up to 800 times its weight.
Once in the stomach, Chitosan encompasses fat, preventing them from entering the bloodstream and eliminating them as toxic residues. In this way, Chitosan reduces fat intake with effect on body mass and cholesterol levels.
Vegetal chitosan, unlike that obtained from crustaceans, is up to 33% more efficient, with a low dissolution time and a higher fat absorption capacity.
Food Fruit Vegetable Preservatives, Flocculant
Chitosan-based coating is beneficial to the shelf life of food and postharvest fruit & vegetable. Chitosan-based coating was concerned in recent years owing to its non-toxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible properties.
In view of the deficiency of single chitosan coating, there are two main methods to improve the property of chitosan-based coating at present. One method is that the chitosan were combined with organic compounds, inorganic compound, or biological control agents. The other method is that single chitosan coating was applied with non-coating remedies including heat treatment, hypobaric treatment, gas fumigation, and modified atmosphere packaging. After applying improved chitosan-based coating, the preserving effects were increased in most of the cases compared with single chitosan coating.
Chitosan as a food grade flocculant can applied in Harvesting Microalgae and used to precipitate caseins from bovine milk and in cheese making. Chitosan is also useful in other filtration situations, where one may need to remove suspended particles from a liquid.
Chitosan and Chitin are the essential components in skin-care creams, shampoos and hairsprays since they function like thickeners, possess antibacterial properties and are able to prevent cosmetic dehydration.
Chitosan and its derivatives have two advantages that make it suitable for skin care; their positive electrical charge, and the fact that Chitosan can function as a moisturizer for skin. Both Chitosan and chitin are already found in creams, pack material, lotions, nail enamel, foundation, eye shadow, lipstick , cleansing materials and bath agents.
In many cases, cosmetics companies use the same derivatives and formulations for skin care that they apply in products for hair care. Also used for skin care are chitosan acylated with an organic diacid anhydride, and fine particles of chitin and chitosan.
Chitosan and hair are complementary because they carry opposite electrical charges – Chitosan positive and hair negative . A Clear solution that contains chitosan forms a clear, elastic film on hair, increasing its softness and mechanical strength. The material can also form a gel when added to mixtures of alcohol and water.
Chitosan acts as an antistatic thereby orotectine hair from wavine and bleaching agents. It helps to retain moisture in low humidity and to maintain hair’s style in high humidity. The material can be used in shampoos , rinses, permanent wave agents, hair colourants, styling lotions, hair sprays and hair tonics.
Oral Care & Dental
Both chitin and chitosan can be used in toothpaste , mouthwashes and chewing gum, they freshen the breath and prevent the formulation of plaque and tooth decay.
Salts of chitosan added to tooth paste mask the unpleasant taste of silicon oxide and bind powders so that they maintain their granular shapes. Chitin can also be applied as a dental filler material. And both Chitin and Chitosan absorb candida a thicans, a fungus that sticks to teeth making them candidates to clean false teeth.
Chitin can regenerate the connective tissue that covers the teeth near the gums, it has possibilities for treating periodontal diseases such as gingivitis and periodontis.
for Stop Bleeding & Wound Healing
Hemostatic dressing is a highly effective blood stopper made from natural substance chitosan, intended for arrest of different types of bleeding. Hemostatic effect is regardless of blood coagulation processes in the body and caused by binding of positively charged elements of material with negatively charged erythrocytes. When contacting with blood, hemostatic dressing enhances the absorption of blood liquid fraction and forms a single gel-tremellose mass, thus facilitating the hemostasis.
A solution of Chitosan was applied directly to wounds and test results showed an inhibition of fibroblasts (scar forming substance) which allowed for normal tissue regeneration. Chitosan also helps blood to coagulate. Surgical arterial grafts connecting major blood vessels showed more effective connection with less leakage than traditional grafting.
In addition, chitosan-based dressing is used for burns, surface wounds and skin-graft donor sites.
Chitosan is used to treat obesity, high cholesterol and Crohn’s disease. It is also used to treat complications that kidney failure patients on dialysis often face, including high cholesterol “tired blood” ( anemia), loss of strength and appetite, and trouble sleeping (insomnia).
Chitosan helps in the management of LDL cholesterol and total blood lipids.
A factor in the support for healthy cholesterol levels.
Properties in cholesterol reduction help cardiovascular health, reduce plaque buildup and improve blood flow.
Cholesterol management reduces the risk of stroke and heart attacks.
In pharmaceutical manufacturing, chitosan is used as a filler in tablets; as a carrier in controlled-release drugs; to improve the way certain drugs dissolve; and to mask bitter tastes in solutions taken by mouth.
Acne: Due to Chitosan’s ability to inhibit certain bacteria which cause the inflammation associated with acne Chitosan has been used to effectively treat it.
Candida: Is a yeast that lives in the colon and it is normally harmless. However, it can over grow and get out of control causing serious health problems. Candida overgrowth affects millions of people. Clinical test involving mice established that Chitosan exhibited the ability to kill candida.
Antacid: A patent has been issued to a Japanese company for using Chitosan as safe and highly effective antacid.
Calcium: Calcium is important for the prevention of osteoporosis. Clinical test show that Chitosan has been found to increase the bioavailability of calcium, which means that is more readily absorbed.
Anti-Plaque: Studies using Chitosan in chewing gum show that Chitosan raises the pH in the mouth and binds to the bacteria that causes plaque and tooth decay.
Anti-Tumour: Recent studies show that Chitosan has an immunopotentiating action. Mice that were given Chitosan showed reduction in blood born microphages and tumour growth was impaired.
Chitosan is unquestionably a remarkable substance and medical studies for its potential health uses are ongoing.
Other More Application Fields
Agriculture : Chitin and Chitosan have three potential uses in Agriculture ; as a seed treatment , a nematocide, and a feed ingredient. Chitinase enzymes have potential as insecticide adjuvants. They work by attacking the Chitin that exists in the exoskeletons of insects.
Textiles: Derived from chitin, chitosan is an organic, biodegradable substance which can be used as a replacement for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), when used in an aqueous dispersion (sizing) and as a strengthening thread, allowing a reduction in water and energy consumption.
Animal Feed Ingredients: Chitin and Chitosan offer three main benefits as components of animal feeds. They permit food processors to recycle protein from food processing waste into animal feed ; they have beneficial nutritional properties; and they control the release of feed additives in ruminant animals.
Water Treatment: The ability of Chitosan to bind metals, combined with its floculating properties, provide applications in treating drinking water, pools and spas, and various waste streams.
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